Filming & Production Following the death of publishing tycoon Charles Foster Kane, reporters scramble to uncover the meaning of his final utterance; 'Rosebud'. :42–43 Seiderman created the effect of skin pores on Kane's face by stippling the surface with a negative cast made from an orange peel. :113–116, 300–302, Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon is often compared to the film due to both having complicated plot structures told by multiple characters in the film. Overall, the entire cast is superb. 81. Film locations for Citizen Kane (1941), in California. :113, Hearing about Citizen Kane enraged Hearst so much that he banned any advertising, reviewing, or mentioning of it in his papers, and had his journalists libel Welles. It was simultaneously released on VHS. Kane sold his newspaper empire to Thatcher after the 1929 stock market crash left him short of cash. TMDb Score. :1–2, 153 RKO Pictures studio head George J. Schaefer wanted to work with Welles after the notorious broadcast, believing that Welles had a gift for attracting mass attention. ", Count on Mr. Welles: he doesn't do things by halves. One extremely low angle is used to photograph the encounter between Kane and Leland after Kane loses the election. Thompson sets out to interview Kane's friends and associates. The cuts satisfied the corporate lawyers. He took control of the New York Inquirer newspaper and embarked on a career of yellow journalism, publishing scandalous articles that attacked Thatcher's (and his own) business interests. Company Credits In testimony for the Lundberg suit, Mankiewicz said, "I had undergone psycho-analysis, and Rosebud, under circumstances slightly resembling the circumstances in [Citizen Kane], played a prominent part. OW. Citizen Kane is particularly praised for Gregg Toland's cinematography, Robert Wise's editing, Bernard Herrmann's music, and its narrative structure, all of which have been considered innovative and precedent-setting. :19–20 "In the film and production photographs, you can see that Kane had a belly that overhung," Seiderman said. " Carringer considers Sarris's essay as the most important influence on the film's reputation in the US. , Turner Broadcasting System acquired broadcast television rights to the RKO library in 1986 and the full worldwide rights to the library in 1987. :88 Bordwell claims that the scene where Thatcher agrees to be Kane's guardian used rear screen projection to depict young Kane in the background, despite this scene being cited as a prime example of Toland's deep focus cinematography. Other films influenced include Gaslight, Mildred Pierce and Jane Eyre. , Not all of the cast came from the Mercury Players. :77–78 The breakfast montage sequence begins with a graceful waltz theme and gets darker with each variation on that theme as the passage of time leads to the hardening of Kane's personality and the breakdown of his first marriage. Genius Comes Through; 'Kane' Astonishing Picture". He knows what's wrong with every issue since I've taken charge. ":19 "Seiderman had gained a reputation as one of the most inventive and creatively precise up-and-coming makeup men in Hollywood," wrote biographer Frank Brady. For teens (and any older kids who shows a budding interest in the art of movie-making), however, it is the must-see portrait of an early 20 th century media tycoon. Susan Alexander Kane Agnes Moorehead. "As he was getting off at his floor, I said, 'Charles Foster Kane would have accepted.'  Welles said that the idea for the breakfast scene "was stolen from The Long Christmas Dinner by Thornton Wilder ... a one-act play, which is a long Christmas dinner that takes you through something like 60 years of a family's life. Welles loved Herrmann's score and told director Henry Jaglom that it was 50 percent responsible for the film's artistic success. :85 Welles boasted that he only went 21 days over his official shooting schedule, without factoring in the month of "camera tests. Speaking to Bogdanovich, Welles corrects himself when speaking about who suggested the "test" shooting: "That was Toland's idea—no, it was Ferguson's idea, the art director. Technical Specs, See agents for this cast & crew on IMDbPro, Copy Boy Delivering Message in Chicago Hotel Room, Films I wanna watch that might be game changers, executive in charge of production (uncredited), visual effects cinematographer (uncredited), photographer: additional scenes (uncredited), picture vehicles coordinator (uncredited), translator: Russian newspapers (uncredited), pre-production assistant: Mr. Welles (uncredited), talent coordinator: Los Angeles (uncredited), translator: Greek newspapers (uncredited), public relations: RKO Radio Pictures (uncredited), backlot manager (uncredited) / production executive (uncredited), translator: Chinese newspapers (uncredited). ":211 Life magazine's review said that "few movies have ever come from Hollywood with such powerful narrative, such original technique, such exciting photography. , French film critic André Bazin defended the film, writing: "In this respect, the accusation of plagiarism could very well be extended to the film's use of panchromatic film or its exploitation of the properties of gelatinous silver halide." Biskind, Peter (ed. Charlie Lederer insisted that Hearst and Davies never saw. :117 Hearst's disruption of the film's release damaged its box office performance and, as a result, it lost $160,000 during its initial run. :34–35[l] Initially most French film critics were influenced by the negative reviews of Jean-Paul Sartre in 1945 and Georges Sadoul in 1946. Orson Welles Joseph ... Citizen Kane is a mystery drama about Charles Foster Kane and the subsequent uncovering of life story, as a group of reporters discern and piece together the meaning behind the infamous publishing tycoon’s last word. I was roughly Orson's age and had several good credits." :19 He had not been accepted into the union, which recognized him as only an apprentice, but RKO nevertheless used him to make up principal actors. , All of the music used in the newsreel came from the RKO music library, edited at Welles's request by the newsreel department to achieve what Herrmann called "their own crazy way of cutting". :88, Optical effects artist Dunn claimed that "up to 80 percent of some reels was optically printed." He wrote complete musical pieces for some of the montages, and Welles edited many of the scenes to match their length. Hearst did not respond. In the opening sequence, for example, the tour of Kane's estate Xanadu, Herrmann introduces a recurring leitmotif played by low woodwinds, including a quartet of alto flutes.  Richard Corliss has asserted that Jules Dassin's 1941 film The Tell-Tale Heart was the first example of its influence and the first pop culture reference to the film occurred later in 1941 when the spoof comedy Hellzapoppin' featured a "Rosebud" sled. :209, The Hollywood Reporter ran a front-page story on January 13 that Hearst papers were about to run a series of editorials attacking Hollywood's practice of hiring refugees and immigrants for jobs that could be done by Americans. The film's famous ceilings were made out of muslin fabric and camera boxes were built into the floors for low angle shots. :19 "Apprentices were not supposed to make up any principals, only extras, and an apprentice could not be on a set without a journeyman present," wrote make-up artist Dick Smith, who became friends with Seiderman in 1979. The film was released on Blu-ray on September 13, 2011, for a special 70th-anniversary edition. Where most Hollywood film scores were written quickly, in as few as two or three weeks after filming was completed, Herrmann was given 12 weeks to write the music. 90. ":51 The film often uses long dissolves to signify the passage of time and its psychological effect of the characters, such as the scene in which the abandoned sled is covered with snow after the young Kane is sent away with Thatcher. ":46, Seiderman worked with Charles Wright on the wigs. The film was still so enjoyable for me, especially as someone who has fallen in love with Noir films of the 40s-50s era. :11, Music enthusiasts consider the scene in which Susan Alexander Kane attempts to sing the famous cavatina "Una voce poco fa" from Il barbiere di Siviglia by Gioachino Rossini with vocal coach Signor Matiste as especially memorable for depicting the horrors of learning music through mistakes. The industry accused Welles of underplaying Mankiewicz's contribution to the script, but Welles countered the attacks by saying, "At the end, naturally, I was the one making the picture, after all—who had to make the decisions. As the sled burns, the camera reveals its trade name, ignored by the staff: "Rosebud.". "But that wasn't Hearst," Welles said, "that was a hatchet man from the local Hearst paper who thought he would advance himself by doing it. "But we were shooting the picture," Welles said, "because we wanted to get started and be already into it before anybody knew about it. Emily Monroe Norton Kane Ray Collins. Orson Welles' masterwork (#1 in the American Film Institute's list of Best American Movies) dazzles anew in a superb 70th-anniversary digital transfer. Everybody in the movie is in it. :72, The score established Herrmann as an important new composer of film soundtracks and eschewed the typical Hollywood practice of scoring a film with virtually non-stop music. Cinematographer Toland did this through his experimentation with lenses and lighting. It took the rest of the world a while to catch up, but in 2000, Kane was voted the best film of all time by the American Film Institute. He became fascinated with the look of low angles, which made even dull interiors look interesting.  Despite never having appeared in feature films, some of the cast members were already well known to the public. :112 There was no objection to its release provided that certain changes, including the removal or softening of specific references that might offend Hearst, were made. "Although the possibility of making huge amounts of money in Hollywood greatly attracted him," wrote biographer Frank Brady, "he was still totally, hopelessly, insanely in love with the theater, and it is there that he had every intention of remaining to make his mark. :102, Welles used techniques from radio like overlapping dialogue. :92 However, some apparently deep-focus shots were the result of in-camera effects, as in the famous scene in which Kane breaks into Susan's room after her suicide attempt. Bazin's praise of the film went beyond film theory and reflected his own philosophy towards life itself. ABC News anchor Peter Jennings reported that "one major reason for doing this is to require people like the broadcaster Ted Turner, who's been adding color to some movies and re-editing others for television, to put notices on those versions saying that the movies have been altered". Arkadin. Citizen Kane is a great motion picture. , Citizen Kane was ranked number one in the American Film Institute's polls of film industry artists and leaders in 1998 and 2007. The film depicts the life of Jack Reed through the eyes of Louise Bryant, much as Kane's life is seen through the eyes of Thompson and the people who he interviews. The scene in which characters sing "Oh, Mr. Kane" was especially complicated and required mixing several soundtracks together. :110 The optical printer improved some of the deep focus shots. A second press screening occurred in April. :94 Toland said that he disliked the results of the optical printer,:92 but acknowledged that "RKO special effects expert Vernon Walker, ASC, and his staff handled their part of the production—a by no means inconsiderable assignment—with ability and fine understanding. The film faded from view after its release, but was subsequently returned to the public's attention when it was praised by such French critics as André Bazin and given an American revival in 1956. ", "I used the whole Mercury cast, heavily disguised by darkness," Welles said.  The Oscar-nominated documentary The Battle Over Citizen Kane lays the blame for the film's relative failure squarely at the feet of Hearst.  Jean Forward (died September 2016), a soprano who dubbed the singing voice of Susan Alexander, was the last surviving performer from the film. ":88, Laura Mulvey explored the anti-fascist themes of Citizen Kane in her 1992 monograph for the British Film Institute. He signed a contract with RKO Pictures in 1939. Citizen Kane is a 1941 American drama film by Orson Welles, its producer, co-screenwriter, director and star. ":60 Toland later explained that he wanted to work with Welles because he anticipated the first-time director's inexperience and reputation for audacious experimentation in the theater would allow the cinematographer to try new and innovative camera techniques that typical Hollywood films would never have allowed him to do. :14, "He trained us for films at the same time that he was training himself," recalled Agnes Moorehead. Thompson concludes that he is unable to solve the mystery and that the meaning of Kane's last word will forever remain an enigma. Through Thatcher's written memoirs, Thompson learns about the rise and decline of Kane's personal fortune. But a mystery still lies at the heart of this masterpiece. Citizen Kane has long been acclaimed as a work of genius and endlessly dissected by critics. :56–57 When asked about the limited budget, Ferguson said "Very often—as in that much-discussed 'Xanadu' set in Citizen Kane—we can make a foreground piece, a background piece, and imaginative lighting suggests a great deal more on the screen than actually exists on the stage. "I'd learned whatever I knew in the projection room—from Ford. Cast & Crew. The film is in the past tense, whereas we all know that cinema has got to be in the present tense. Nominated for Academy Awards in nine categories, it won an Academy Award for Best Writing (Original Screenplay) by Herman J. Mankiewicz and Welles. :63 Because it was Herrmann's first motion picture score, RKO wanted to pay him only a small fee, but Welles insisted he be paid at the same rate as Max Steiner. For these scenes Welles had Comingore's throat sprayed with chemicals to give her voice a harsh, raspy tone. , Unlike Schaefer, many members of RKO's board of governors did not like Welles or the control that his contract gave him. Read more. :129, Bazin went on to co-found Cahiers du cinéma, whose contributors (including future film directors François Truffaut and Jean-Luc Godard) also praised the film.  After the Spielberg purchase, it was reported that retiree Arthur Bauer claimed to own another "Rosebud" sled. Being in a gay relationship would have immediately gotten someone kicked out of school back in the days of Citizen Kane. :47, The major studios gave screen credit for make-up only to the department head.  Citizen Kane, along with Rear Window and Three Colours: Red, are the only films to have received 100% scores on both Rotten Tomatoes and Metacritic. This meant that he was free to score for unusual combinations of instruments, even instruments that are not commonly heard. 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